Bibliography for Resilience Scale™ and RS14™

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Abiola T, Udofia O. (2011). Psychometric assessment of the Wagnild and Young’s Resilience Scale in Kano, Nigeria. BioMed Central. Open Access Publisher, Doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-509.

Ahern, NR. (2007). Resiliency in adolescent college students. University of Central Florida, 270 pages; AAT 3256904

Ahern NR, Kiehl EM, Sole ML, Byers J. (2006). A Review of Instruments Measuring Resilience. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 29(2), 103-25.

Aiena BJ, Baczwaski BJ, Schulenberg SE, Buchanan EM. (2014). Measuring resilience with the RS-14: a tale of two samples. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97 (3): 291-300.

Aiena BJ, Baczwaski BJ, Buchanan EM, Schulenberg SE. (2012). The psychometric properties of the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14). 2012 APA Annual Convention, Orlando, Florida.

Akanni OO, Otakpor AN. (2016). Psychological distress and resilience: a study of prevalence and association among school-attending adolescents in Benin-City. Sri Lanka Journal of Psychiatry, (7 (1): June 2016.

Alex L, Lundman B. (2011). Lack of resilience among very old men and women: A qualitative gender analysis. Research and Theory in Nursing Practice, 25 (4): 302-16.

Alston A. (2011). The relationship between resilience and the intent to practice HIV prevention among African American women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.

Amandru SW, Bantu E, Mwebi B, Okwara M, Onderi H. (2014). Adolescent resilience, social support, and drug abuse a case of Koboko District, West Nile, Uganda. Basic Research Journals, 3 (4): 35-44.

Anderson KA, Fields NL. (2013). Relationships between resilience and well-being in family caregivers to Holocaust survivors.  In M. Nozka & M. Smagacz-Poziemska (Eds.), Starzenie się: Problemat społeczno-socjalny i praktyka działań (Aging: As the social question and the social practice). Krakow, Poland: Jagiellonian University Press.

Andrade, FP, Muniz RM, Lange C, Schwartz E. (2013). Economic and socio-demographic profile of cancer survivors according to degree of resilience. Text Context Nursing, Florianopolis, April-June, 22 (2): 476-84.

Armando A, da Motta NW, Pinto RC, et al. (2010). Analysis of resilience and depression scores and their relation to quality of life in ambulatory lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28 (15 suppl). .

Aroian KJ, Norris AE. (2000). Resilience, stress, and depression among Russian immigrants to Israel. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22 (1) : 54-67.

Aroian KJ, Norris AE, Tran TV, Schappler-Morris N. (1998). Psychometric evaluation of a Russian language version of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 5: 151-164.

Assis SG, Santos N, Oliveira R de V, Carvalhaes D. (2004). Risk and protection: looking for an equilibrium that provides resilience. Psic.: Teor. e Pesq., 20(2), 135-43.

Babalwa T, du Plessis E, Koen D, Ellis S. (2018). The relationship between resilience and empowering leader behavior of nurse managers in the mining healthcare sector. Curations, 41(1), a1775.

Battle, KD. (2010). Resilience in African-American and Caucasian caregivers of family members with Alzheimer's disease or related dementia (ADRD). The Catholic University of America, 105 pages; AAT 3403456

Beauvais AM, Stewart JG, DeNisco S, Beauvais JE. (2014). Factors related to academic success among nursing students: A descriptive correlational research study. Nursing Education Today June, 34 (6): 918-23.

Bhamani SS, Omrana P, Karmaliani R, Asad N, Azam I. (2015). Validation of the Urdu version of Wagnild and Young’s long and short Resilience Scales among 20-40 year old married women living in urgban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 23 (3):425-35.

Black C, Ford-Gilboe M. (2004). Adolescent mothers: resilience, family health work and health-promoting practices. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 48(4), 351-60.

Boardman L. (2016). Building resilience in nursing students: implementing techniques to foster success. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience,

Botou A, Mylonakou-Keke I, Kalouri O, Tsergas N. (2017). Primary school teachers’ resilience during the economic drisis in Greece. Psychology, 8: 131-159.

Brix C, Schleussner C, Fuller J, et al. (2008). The need for psychosocial support and its determinants in a sample of patients undergoing radiooncological treatment of cancer. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 65(6): 541-8.

Broyles LC. (2005). Resilience: Its Relationships to Forgiveness in Older Adults. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Burnett Jr, HJ Wahl K. (2015). The compassion fatigue and resilience connection: a survey of resilience, compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among trauma responders. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 17 (1): 318-26.

Burnett Jr HJ, Helm HW Jr. (2013). Relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder, resilience, and religious practices among university student earthquake survivors in Haiti. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 15 (2): 97-104.


Cadogan-Mcclean CA. (2009). An examination of resilience: Its relationship to work stress among accountants practicing in Barbados. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Capella University.

Cal SF, Santiago MB. (2013). Resilience in systemic lupus erythematosus. Psychology and Health Medicine, 18 (5): 558-63.

Callegari C, Bertu L, Caselli K, Isella C, Lelmini M, Bonalumi C, Ferrario M, Vender S. (2016). Resilience in older adults: influence of the admission in nursing home and psychopathology. Neuropsychiatry , 6 (4): 117-23.

Callegari C, Bertu L, Lucano M, Ielmini M, Braggio E, Vender S. (2016). Reliability and validity of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale.  Available at:

Caltabiano ML, Caltabiano NL. (2006). Resilience and health outcomes in the elderly. 

Cardoso FL, Sacomori C. (2014). Resilience of athletes with physical disabilities: A cross-sectional study. Revista de Psicologia del Deporte, 23 (1): 15-22.

Carvalho IG, Bertolli EDS, Paiva L, Rossi LA, Dantas RAS, Pompeo DA. (2016). Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular disease. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem,  24: e2836

Cenat JM, Derivois D. (2014). Psychometric properties of the Creole Haitian version of the Resilience Scale amongst child and adolescent survivors of the 2010 earthquake. Comprehensive Psychiatry, February, 55(2): 388-95.

Chakraborti A, Ray P, Islam MU, Mallick AK. (2016). Medical undergraduates and pathological internet use: interplay of stressful life events and resilience. Journal of Health Specialty 4: 56-63.

Chedraui P, Perez-Lopez FR, Schwager G, Sanchez H, Aguirre W, Martinez N, Miranda O, Plaza MS, Astudillo C, Narvaez J, Quintero JC, Zambrano B. (2012). Resilience and related factors during female Equadorian mid-life. Maturitas, June, 72 (2): 152-6.

Chirila TM. (2015). Mediation roles of resilience and coping strategies on the relationship between workplace bullying and Romanian employees’ depressive symptoms. Romanian Journal of Experimental Applied Psychology, 6 (3): 84-101.

Choi M, Kim M. (2016). Development and effects of a resilience training program for nurses. Journal of Korean Academy for Nursing Administration , 22 (4): 373-83.

Choowattanapakorn T, Alex L, Lundman B, Norberg A, Nygren B. (2010). Resilience among women and men aged 60 years and over in Sweden and in Thailand. Nursing Health Science, 12, 329-35.Christopher KA. (2000). Determinants of psychological well-being in Irish immigrants. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22(2), 123-43.

Cohen M, BazilianskyS, Beny A. (2014). The association of resilience and age in individuals with colorectal cancer: An exporatory cross-sectional study. Journal of Geriatric Oncology, January, 5 (1): 33-9.

Cohu, E. (2005). Participation in athletics and development of certain traits related to resiliency theory. Union University, 101 pages; AAT 3197274

Cooke GP, Doust JA, Steele MC. (2013). A survey of resilience, burnout, and tolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice registrars. BMC Medical Education, January, 7 (13): 2.

Cosco TD, Kaushal A, Richards M, Kuh D, Stafford M. (2016). Resilience measurement in later life: a systematic review and psychometric analysis. Health Quality Life Outcomes, 14: 16.  Available at:

Craig, J. (2005). An investigation of the mediators between social support and hope in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - Newark, 124 pages; AAT 3170748

Crosby RA, Salazar LF, Hill B. (2016). Gender affirmation and resiliency among Black transgender women with and without HIV infection Transgender Health, 1 (1): 86-93.

DaSilva AN, DaSilva CM, Vettore MV. (2014). Are resilience and maternal sense of coherence associated with gingival status in adolescents from low-income families? International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. Jan 20 [Epub ahead of print].

Damasio BF, Borsa JC, da Silva JP. (2011). 14-Item Resilience Scale (RS-14): psychometric properties of the Brazilian version. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 19 (3): 131-145.

Davis, KN. (2009). Paternal figure influence on resiliency development in African American adolescent females. Tennessee State University, 98 pages; AAT 3369049

DeArmas-Valdes, CA. (2004). Contributing factors to resilience in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. University of Maryland, College Park, 179 pages; AAT 3152652

deLemos, CMM, Moraes DW, Pellanda LC. (2016). Resilience in patients with Ischemic Heart Disease. Arq Bras Cardiol, 106 (2): 130-35.

DeNisco S. (2011). Exploring the relationship between resilience and diabetes outcomes in African Americans. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners. 23 (11): 602-10.

DeSouza MA, Junior OC, Filho AFF, Cavalcante IMT, Friedrich AH, Marmitt N, Ramminger F, DaSilve DL. (10). Resilience among older (> 65 years) cancer patients undergoing ambulatory chemotherapy treatment. Journal of Clinical Oncology , 28 (15 suppl).

Dias PC, Cadime I, Perim PC. (2016). Further evidence for the structure of the Resilience Scale in Portuguese language countries: an invariance study with Brazilian and Portuguese adolescents. Psicologia, 30 (2). Available at:

Diaz MD. (2015). The psychological Resilience of spousal caregivers of Multiple Sclerosis family. Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies.

Do Rosario Pinheiro M, Matos AP. (2013). Exploring the construct validity of the two versions of the Resilience Scale in Portuguese adolescent sample. The European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences, (GET REF)


Eaddy, SL. (2000). An exploration of the relationship between hardiness and resilience for people impacted by HIV. Texas Woman's University, 60 pages; AAT 9993938

Ebulum GC, Chidiobi RU. (2016). Resilience, gender and age as predictors of satisfaction with academic major among university undergraduates. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Social Sciences, 6 (4): April 2016.

Eley DS, Cloninger CR, Walters L, Laurence C, Synnott R, Wilkinson D. (2013). The relationship between resilience and personality traits in doctors: Implications for enhancing wellbeing. Peer Journal, November 19, doi: 10.7717/peerj.216.Accessed March 2014.

Faison, MW. (2007). The relationship of forgiveness to psychological resilience. Capella University. 93 pages. AAT 3255612

Faria DA, Revoredo LS, Vilar MJ, Eulalia Maria Chaves M. (2014). Resilience and treatment adhesion in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Open Rheumatology Journal, February 21, (8), 1-8.

Farrell, DJ. (2007). Relationships between health values, spiritual well-being, and resilience among college students reporting personal substance use and familial substance abuse: An exploratory study. Michigan State University, 225 pages; AAT 3282096

Fernandes C, Beltrao BA, Chaves DBR, Leandro TA, da Silva, VM, de Oliveira Lopes MV. (2013). Assessment of the resilience level of adolescents with leprosy. Revista Enfermagem Uerj UerJ Nursing Journal, 21 (4) (2013).

Fernandes G, Varajao J, Amaral A. (2018). Wagnild and Young’s Resilience Scale Validation for IS Students. Procedia Computer Science, 138:815-822.  Doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2018.10.106.

Filho AFF, Wunder AP, da Silva DL, Slomka L, Machado MW, dos Santos MP, Graeff S, Freitas D, Friedrich A. (2009). Analysis of resilience scores in a cohort of solid tumors ambulatory cancer patients in chemotherapy treatment. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27 (15 suppl).

Filho AFF, Junior OC, daSilve DL, de Souze MA, Cavalcante IMT, Wunder AP. (2010). Analysis of resilience scores of breast cancer patients undergoing ambulatory chemotherapy treatment. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28 (15 suppl).

Friedman, AT.  (2007). Resiliency in women with early traumatic experiences: An examination of level of secure attachment, optimism, spiritual well-being, locus of control, psychological equilibrium, and social support as potential predictors of successful outcomes. New York University, 134 pages; AAT 3259711

Frigiola A, Bull C, Wray J. (2014). Exercise capacity, quality of life, and resilience after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: a cross-sectional study of patients operated between 1954 and 2009. Cardiology in the Young, 24 (1): 79-86.

Gaborik, KM. (2011). Principal Leadership and Resilience in a Climate of Secondary School Reform. Argosy University Online.

Gheshlagh RG, Sayehmiri K, Ebadi A, Dalvandi A, Dalvand S, Tabrizi, KN. (2016). Resilience of patients with chronic physical diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 18 (7): e38562

Girtler N, Casari EF, Brugnolo A, Cutolo M, Dessi B, Guasco S, Olmi C, De Carli F. (2010). Italian validation of the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale: A perspective to rheumatic diseases. Clinical Exp. Rheumatol, September-October, 28 (5): 669-78.

Glasberg AL, Eriksson S, Norberg, (2008). Factors associated with “stress of conscience” in health care. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 22(2), 249-58.

Goncalves AMPMPC, Cammarneiro AP. (2018).Validation of the Wagnild and Young’s resilience scale in adolescents in residential care. Research Paper (Original).

Gonsalvez J, Miriam S, Solomon P. (2013). Resiliency of women survivors of the Tsunami 2004 in South India. European Scientific Journal, September, 9

Graber R, Turner R, Madill AL. (2016). Best friends and better coping: facilitating psychological resilience through boys’ and girs’ closest friendships. British Journal of Psychology, 107 (2): 338-58.


Hasui C, Igarahi H, Shikai N, shono M, Nagata T, Kitamura T. (2009). The Resilience Scale: a duplication study in Japan. The Open Family Studies Journal, 2: 15-22.

Heilemann MV, Lee KA, Kury FS. (2005). Strength factors among women of Mexican descent. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 27(8), 949-65.

Heilemann MV, Lee K, Kury FS. (2003). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement,, 11 (1): 61-72.

Helmreich I, Kunzler A, Chmitorz A, Konig J, Binder H, Wessa J, Lieb K. (2017). Psychological interventions for resilience enhancement in adults.  Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD012527. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012527

Hmieleski KM, Carr JC. (2007). The relationship between entrepreneur psychological capital and well-being. 

Hodges, TA. (2009). Factors that impact help-seeking among battered African American women: Application of critical and survivor theories. Capella University, 99 pages; AAT 3342221

Hofer A, Mizuno Y, Frajo-Apor B, Kemmler G, Suzuki T, Pardeller S, Welte AS, Sondermann C, Mimura M, Wartelsteiner F, Fleischhacker WW, Uchida H. (2016). Resilience, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and hopelessness among people with schizophrenia: Cultural comparison in Austria and Japan. Schizophrenia Research, 171: 86-91.

Howell, CL. (2003). Resilience in adult women students in higher education: Implications for academic achievement and persistence. Northern Arizona University, 186 pages; AAT 3118483

Hughes, LA. (2002). The effect of relationship status on empathy, narcissism, and resilience in women. Alliant International University, Los Angeles, 129 pages; AAT 3077436

Humphreys J. (2003). Research in sheltered battered women. Issues in Mental Health Nursing; 24, 137-52.

Hunter AJ, Chandler GE. (1999). Adolescent resilience. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship; 31(2), 243-7.

Hutchinson AK, Stuart AD, Pretorius HG. (2010). Biological contributions to well-being: The relationships amongst temperament, character strengths and resilience. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA, 36 (2): Art. #844, 10 pages. Doi: 10.4102/sajip.v36i2.844

Ishizuka N, Takano T, Miura U, Suyama K, Shimomura A, Matsushima E. (2017). Psychological distress and Resilience among Partners of Cancer patients Receiving Outpatient chemotherapy. Scientific Research. An Academic Publisher; 8 (8): Doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2017.88045

Jakacki, PC (2011). Mentoring during adolescence and adult resilience. The University of southern Mississippi, 97 paages; AAT 3455444

Johnson, JD. (2002). Relationship between resiliency, self-care agency, and self-care in the community-dwelling older adult. Medical College of Ohio at Toledo, 65 pages; AAT 1408442

Junior OC, Filho AFF, deSouze MA, Wunder AP, Cavalcante IMT, DaSilva DL. (2010). Comparison of resilience scores of an ambulatory nonselected population of cancer patients older than age 70 or younger than age 50 receiving chemotherapy treatment. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28 (15 suppl).

Kahrta BA, Worthmand CM, Adhikaric RP, Luitelc NP, Arevaloe JMG, Mae J, McCreathg H, Seemang TE, Crimminsi EM, Cole SW. (2016). Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers. PNAS Early Edition. Available at

Kaliana J, Falk-Kessler J, Miller P, Bacon J, Herbert J. (2010). The effect of occupational therapy on resilience of patients with multiple sclerosis. Comprehensive care and rehabilitation 2, 26th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis and 15th Annual Conference of Rehabilitation in MS.

Karreman A, Vingerhoets JJM. (2012). Attachment and well-being: The mediating role of emotion regulation and resilience. Personality and Individual Differences, 53 (7): 821-26.

Kaur M, Kaur R. (2017). Resilience as a predictor of burnout behavior among secondary school teachers. Asian Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, 7 (2): 985-993.

Kaur J, Gera M. (2016). Study of problem solving ability of adolescents in relation to parenting styles and resilience. International Journal of Psychology and Counseling, 8 (2): 8-12.

Keidy D. (2012). The relationship between feminist identity and resiliency in women. Texas Woman’s University, 228 pages; AAT 3538770

King, S D. (2009). Midlife and Older Gay Men and Their Use of Physical and Mental Health Services: Exploring the Effects of Health Enablers, Health Need, Psychosocial Stress and Individual Health Coping. The Ohio State University, 159 pages.

Kocalevent RD, Zenger M, Heinen I, Dwinger S, Decker O, Brahler E. (2015). Resilience in the general population. PLoS ONE 10(11): Available at:  

Koen MP Van Eden C, Wissing MP. (2011). The prevalence of resilience in a group of professional nurses. Health SA Gesondheid, 16 (1): Art. #576.

Kotze M, Lamb S. (2012). The influence of personality traits and resilience on burnout among customer service representatives in a call centre. Journal of Social Science, 32 (3): 295-309.

Kudlova P, Hyncicova M, Kocvarova I. (2016). Perception of Resilience and social support of adolescents and Young adults with ulcerous colitis – Research performed at 5 gastroenterological outpatient wards in the Czech Republic. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences  EpSBS. 2nd International Conference on Health and Health Psychology.

Kwon HJ, Kwon S (2014). Korean versión of the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) for university students: A validity and reliability study. Journal of Korean Academic Psychiatricy and Mental Health Nursing, 23 (4): 225-232.


Las Hayas C, Calvete E, Gomez del Barrio A, Beato L, Munoz P, Padierna JA. (2014). Resilience Scale-25 Spanish version: validation and assessment in eating disorders. Eating Behaviors, Augusg; 15 (3): 460-3.

Lee HS, Brown SL, Mitchell MM, Schiraldi GR. (2008). Correlates of resilience in the face of adversity for Korean women immigrating to the US. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Heealth. 10 (5): 415-22.

Lee, HJ. (2002). Psychosocial variables associated with resilience among Korean mother-daughter dyads. University of Maryland, College Park, 170 pages; AAT 3115717

Lee, KJ. (2015). Promoting staff resilience in the pediatric intensive care unit. American Journal of Critical Care, 24 (5): 422-30.

Lei M, Li C, Xiao X, Qiu J, Dai Y, Zhang Q. (2012). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale in Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 53 (5): 616-22.

Lemos CMM, Moraes DW, Pellanda LC. (2016). Resilience in patients with Ischemic Heart Disease. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 106 (2): 130-35.

Lemos CM, Pellanda LC, Hutz C, Muller MC. (2004). Validation of the Resilience Scale for patients with cardiovascular disease. Global Heart, 9 (1): Page e304

Leppert K, Gunzelmann T, Schumacher J, Strauss B, Brahler E. (2005). Resilience as a protective personality characteristic in the elderly. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinishe Psychologie, 55(8), 365-9.

Li MH. (2015). Influence of stress, social support-seeking, and trait resilience on problem solving and avoidance: a cross-country study. Vistas Online Article 10.

Li MH, Eschenauer R, Yang Y. (2013). The influence of self-efficacy and trait resilience on problem-solving in the US, Taiwan, and China. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development,41: 144-57.

Li, MH Nishikawa T. (2012). The relationship among active coping and trait resilience across US and Taiwanese college students samples. Journal of College Counseling, 15: 157071.

Li M. (2009). Cognitive appraisal and/or personality traits: Enhancing active coping in two types of stressful situations. Paper based on a program presented at the American Counseling Association annual Conference and exposition, Charlotte, NC.

Li-Ching MaHong-Jer ChangYueh-Min LiuHsiang-Li HsiehLan LoMei-Yu Lin, and Kuo-Cheng Lu. (2013). The relationship between health-promoting behaviors and resilience in patients with chronic kidney disease. The Scientific World Journal 2013, Article ID 124973, 7 pages.

Lim EJ, Noh JH, Jeong YS. (2016). The relationships among Type D Personality, self-resilience, and health promoting behaviors in nursing students. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology, 8 (2): 341-52.

Losoi H, Turunen S, Waljas M, Helminen M, Ohman J, Julkunen, J, Rosti-Otajarvi E. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Finnish version of the Resilience Scale and its short version. Psychology, Community & Health, 2 (1): 1-10.

Losoi, H. Waljas M, Turunen S, Brander A, Helminen M, Luoto TM, Rosti-Otajarvi E, Julkunen J, Ohman J. (2014). Resilience is associated with fatigue after mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head and Trauma Rehabilitation, May 16 [Epub ahead of print].

Losoi H, Silverberg ND, Waljas M, Turunen S, Rosti-Otajarvi E, Helminen M, Luoto TM, Julkunen J, Ohman J, Iverson GL. (2015). Resilience is associated with outcome from mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 32 (13): 942-49.

Lossnitzer N, Wagner E, Wild B, Frankenstein L, Rosendahl J, Leppert K, Herzog W, Schultz JH.(2014).  Resilience in chronic heart failure. Dtsch Med Wochenschr, 139 (12): 580-4.

Lundman B, Alex L, Jonsen E, Lovheim H, Nygren B, Fischer RS, Strandberg G. (2012). Inner strength in relation to functional status, disease, living arrangements, and social relationships among people aged 85 years and older. Geriatric Nursing, 33 (3): 167-76.

Lundman B, Strandberg G, Eisemann M, Gustafson Y, Brulin C. (2007). Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Resilience Scale. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. 21 (2): 229-237.

Ma LC, Chang HJ, Liu YM, Hsieh HL, Lo I, Lin MY, Lu KC. (2013). The relationship between health-promoting behaviors and resilience in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, ART. 124973, 7 pages.

Machuca, R. (2010). Resilience Characteristics of Master's-Level Counseling Students. University of New Orleans, 195 pages; AAT 3440847

Manzini CSS, Vale FAC. (2016). Resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer. Rev. Eletr. Enf. [Internet]. 2016.

Marais C, DuPlessis E, Koen MP. (2016). The effectiveness of sensory stimulation therapy to strengthen the resilience of operating room nurses. Curations, 39 (1): a1590.

March M. (2004). Well Being of Older Australians: The Interplay of Life Adversity and Resilience in Late Life Development. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Charles Sturt University, Australia.

Marnocha S, Marnocha M. (2013). How older female spouses cope with partners’ coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Nursing Research and Practice, Article ID 923137, 7 pages,

Marnocha, SK. (2003). Influence of stress, cognitive appraisal, resilience, and social support on coping of older women whose spouses have undergone coronary artery bypass surgery. The University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, 187 pages; AAT 3091367

Martins AB, dos Santos CM, Hilgert JB, de Marchi RJ, Hugo FN, Padilha DMP. (2011). Resilience and self-perceived oral health: A hierarchical approach. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 59, 725-31.

Mautner E, Stern C, Deutsch M, Nagele E, Greimel E, Lang U, Cervar-Zivkovic M. (2014). The impact of resilience on psychological outcomes in women after preeclampsia: An observational cohort study. Health Quality of Life Outcomes, November 14, doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-11-194. Accessed in March 2014.

McCann TV, Songprakun W, Stephenson J. (2015). Efficacy of a self-help manual in increasing resilience in carers of adults with depression in Thailand. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 25 (1): 62-70.

McGrath RJ, Wiggin J, Caron RM. (2010), The relationship between resilience and body image in college women. The Internet Journal of Health, 10 (2). 2.

McLafferty M, Mallett J, McCauley V. (2012). Coping at university: The role of resilience, emotional intelligence, age and gender. Journal of Quantitative Psychological Research, 1: 1-6.

Meister R, Weber T, Princip M, Schnyder U, Barth J, Znoj H, Schmid JP, Von Kanel R. (2015) Resilience as a correlate of acute stress disorder symptoms in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Openheart, 2 (1).

Miller AM, Chandler J. (2002). Acculturation, resilience, and depression in midlife women from the former Soviet Union. Nursing Research, 51(1), 26-32.

Ming-hui Li. (2008). Helping college students cope: Identifying predictors of active coping in different stressful situations. Journal of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Mental Health, 2(1). Available at:

Moe A, Hellzen O, Ekker K, Enmarker I. (2013). Inner strength in relation to perceived physical and mental health among the oldest old people with chronic illness. Aging and Mental Health, 17 (2): 189-96.

Moe A, Ekker K, Enmarker I. (2013). A description of resilience for Norwegian home-living chronically ill oldest older persons. Open Journal of Nursing, 3, 241-8.

Monteith B, Ford-Gilboe M. (2002). The relationship among mother’s resilience, family health work, and mother’s health promoting lifestyle practices in families with preschool children. Journal of Family Nursing, 8(4), 383-407.

Monteith, B. (1997). The relationships among mother's resilience, family health work, and mother's health-promoting lifestyle practices in families with pre-school children. The University of Western Ontario (Canada), 106 pages; AAT MQ28623

Montex JFC, Lupercio BIA, Gonzalez OUR (2015). Resilience in university students. A comparative study among different careers. Psicogente, 19 (36): 227-39.

Moorhouse A, Caltabiano ML. (2007). Resilience and unemployment: Exploring risk and protective influences for the outcome variables of depression and assertive job searching. Journal of Employment Counseling, Sep; 44(3), 115.

Morgan Consoli ML, Llamas JD. (2013). The relationship between Mexican American cultural values and resilience among Mexican American college students: A mixed methods study. Journal of Counseling Psychology, October, 60 (4): 617-24.

Mu'min, AS. (2010). Racial identity and resilience as predictors of the psychological health of African American men.. Ohio University, 210 pages; AAT 3413054

Munasinge K. (2012) Adaptation and validation of the Resilience Scale on Sinhala speaking adolescents attending school in the Kandy District.


Narayanan SS, Omn ACW. (2016). The influence of perceived social support and self-efficacy on resilience among first year Malaysian students. Kajiam Malaysai,  34 (2): 1-23.

Neill JT, Dias KL. (2001). Adventure education and resilience: The double-edged sword. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1(2), 35-42.

Nishi D, Uehara R, Kondo M, Matsuoka Y. (2010). Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version. BMC Research Notes, 3: 310.

Norman, MV. (2001). Resilience and its role in the perception of stress and psychosomatic symptoms in African Americans. Tennessee State University, 88 pages; AAT 3024629

Notter, OS. (2013). Building Resilience in At-Risk Adolescents: Comparing the mechanisms and outcomes of two school-based prevention programmes. Victoria University of Wellington.

Nourian M, Mohammadi SF, Nourozi TK, Rassouli M, Biglarrian A. (2016). Resilience and its contributing factors in adolescents in long-term residential care facilities affiliated to Tehran Welfare Organization. IJCBNM,  (4 (4): 386-96.

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