The RS14


If you are interested in purchasing a licensing agreement to use the RS14, please Contact Us


Researchers frequently prefer shorter instruments when available to reduce participant burden and increase response. With this in mind, in 2009 I developed a shorter 14-item resilience assessment derived from the original Resilience Scale called the RS14.

I did several large surveys before making this instrument available to other researchers. The original Resilience Scale and the RS14 are strongly correlated (r = 0.97, p>0.001). The Resilience Core (5 essential characteristics constituting resilience) are represented in the RS14.


Cronbach’s alpha ranges from .89 to .96.

Construct Validity

In the 9 years since the RS14 was made available to researchers, its construct validity has been evaluated using content analysis, known groups, convergent/discriminant studies, correlation studies, factor analysis, pretest-posttest intervention studies, similar to the Resilience Scale. A review of the Bibliography on this website will demonstrate the wide range of studies that have established the construct validity for the RS14.

As with the Resilience Scale, we have learned that resilience (measured by the RS14) is positively associated with self-esteem, active coping, forgiveness, health promotion, family health, psychological well-being, sense of community, social support, sense of coherence, healthy lifestyle behaviors, self-care during chronic illness, purpose in life, self-transcendence, religiosity, optimism, high physical function, spiritual well-being, goal achievement, and many other positive qualities.

We have learned that resilience (measured by the RS14) is inversely related to hopelessness, helplessness, passive coping, stress, number of perceived stress events, depression, anxiety, battle fatigue stress, compassion fatigue, burnout, employee turnover, and other events.

Age groups

The RS14 is written at the 6th grade level (12-13 years) and can be completed in about 3-4 minutes for most people.


The RS14 is available in the following languages:

Amharic, Arabic, Bahasa Indonesian, Bosnian, Chinese, Chinese (Taiwanese), Creole, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Lithuanian, Malay, Nepali, Persian, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal), Portuguese (Brazil), Romanian, Russian,  Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovenian, Spanish Castilian, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil,  Thai, Turkish, and Urdu.

Examples of items include:

  • I have self-discipline.
  • I can usually find something to laugh about.
  • My life has meaning.

The RS14 is not offered online. Its primary purpose is for graduate student research and for established researchers in the university setting. If you would like an online measure for your organization, we offer the online Resilience Scale.

Indispensable to the use of the Resilience Scale is the Resilience Scale User's Guide, which is sent electronically when you purchase a licensing agreement.

Frequently Asked Questions

If you are a graduate student researcher or an established university researcher and would like to consider using the RS or RS14 in your research, please Contact Us. We will respond within 72 hours.