The original Resilience Scale


The Resilience Scale is the original resilience measure and considered the “gold standard” for resilience assessments among researchers around the world. It is a highly valid and reliable 25-item measure and measures resilience in any setting. It was first published in 1993 and is the first resilience assessment to measure resilience directly.

I began the research for this measure in the early 1980s while I studied healthy aging among older adults and psychosocial adaptation to ischemic heart disease among women. I have always been curious about how people adapt during and after major losses and other difficult life events and the Resilience Scale measures the inner strengths required to adapt positively.

The Resilience Scale measures what is going right versus what is going wrong in your life. It measures strengths rather than limitations. Evidence shows that the more resilient you are the more rewarding and rich your life will be and the better able you’ll be to handle stress.


Cronbach’s alpha ranges from .87 to .95.

Construct Validity

A variety of methods have been used to assess the construct validity of the Resilience Scale and the accumulation of this evidence over the years supports and continues to support the construct validity. These methods include content analysis, known groups, convergent/discriminant studies, correlation studies, factor analysis, pretest-posttest intervention studies, and so forth. A review of the Bibliography on this website will demonstrate the wide range of studies that have established the construct validity.

We have learned that resilience (measured by the Resilience Scale) is positively associated with self-esteem, active coping, forgiveness, health promotion, family health, psychological well-being, sense of community, social support, sense of coherence, healthy lifestyle behaviors, self-care during chronic illness, purpose in life, self-transcendence, religiosity, optimism, high physical function, spiritual well-being, goal achievement, and many other positive qualities.

We have learned that resilience (measured by the Resilience Scale) is inversely related to hopelessness, helplessness, passive coping, stress, number of perceived stress events, depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia impact, battle fatigue stress, compassion fatigue, burnout, employee turnover, and other events.

Age groups

The Resilience Scale is written at the 6th grade level (12-13 years) and can be completed in about 5-7 minutes for most people.


The Resilience Scale is available in the following languages:

Bosnian, Chinese, Chinese (Taiwanese), Creole, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Lithuanian, Malay, Nepali, Persian, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal), Portuguese (Brazil), Romanian, Russian,  Sinhalese, Slovenian, Spanish Castilian, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil, Turkish, and Urdu.

Examples of items include:

  • I can usually look at a situation in a number of ways.
  • I am determined.
  • My life has meaning.

Use of the Resilience Scale

The Resilience Scale is not offered online. Its primary purpose is for graduate student research and for established researchers in the university setting. If you would like an online measure for your organization, wellness program, workshop, university or school setting, we offer the online Resilience Assessments for Adults and Youth. 

Indispensable to the use of the Resilience Scale is the Resilience Scale User's Guide, which is sent electronically when you purchase a licensing agreement.

Frequently Asked Questions

If you are a graduate student researcher or an established university researcher and would like to consider using the RS or RS14 in your research, please Contact Us. We will respond within 72 hours.